ACID ROCK DRAINAGE - ACID MINE DRAINAGE
In order to ensure a sustainable and smooth mining operation, the Acid Rock Drainage must be estimated before occurrence and necessary measures must be taken and implemented and monitored starting from mineral exploration phase to the end of mine decommissioning. Otherwise unpredictable problems, both in environmental and in economic terms may occur, which might negatively affect environment, local people and the owner.
Acid Mine Drainage Characterization and General Procedures
The chemical, geochemical, physio-chemical, physical and biological process which causes sulphuric metallic minerals, especially pyrite, maracase and pyrrhotite to dissolve and disperse H+ ion to aqueous medium upon contact with air and water during mining activities (ore production, ore or tallow stocking, waste piling) and hence gaining acidic properties is called Acid Mine Drainage. Sulfuric metallic minerals show an acid-forming character, while some minerals, especially carbonates and silicates, when exposed to air and water, give the aqueous medium OH- ion to make the environment basic and function as buffering.The presence of minerals that will cause acidity in a mining activity is not a definitive proof of the formation of the Acid Mine Drainage, nor does it imply that the formation of acid mine drainage will not occur due to the buffering character of the site.